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A snap shot of the status and trends of Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs) in 2024

IDN availability 

  • As estimated 85% of ccTLDs support IDNs along with 41% of gTLDs.  In absolute terms, IDNs are supported under at least 78 ASCII/Latin ccTLDs, 50 IDN ccTLDs, 423 ASCII/Latin gTLDs and 95 IDN gTLDs. 

  • Across geographic regions, the support rate is 88% in Europe, 87% in Asia and 68% in the Americas.  

ccTLD technical features of IDNs 

  • Latin is the most common script offered by ccTLDs followed by Cyrillic.

  • In 85% of cases, Registries use their own technical ‘back end’ software for registrations. For those that outsource, providers include; Identity Digital, GoDaddy Registry, Fred (by CZ.NIC), Fury (by CIRA) and CoCCA.

  • Homoglyph bundling, a measure used to prevent confusion and potential phishing attacks that arise from the registration of visually similar domain names, is supported in 25% of ccTLDs. 


  • Based on available data, there are an estimated 4.4 million second level IDNs globally (likely more) , 69% of which are under ccTLDs.  IDNs represents around 1.2% of the global domain name market

  • Among ccTLDs, largest holdings are found under .рф (769K), .de (648K), .cn (537K),  .中国 (164K) and .jp (85K). 

  • While several ccTLDs (.рф, .vn, .hk) saw strong growth in IDN registrations over 2023, most barely grew at all.  For 19 ccTLDs, total IDN registrations contracted over the year.  Median growth over the year was recorded at 0.6% (sample: 41 ccTLDs)

  • gTLDs with the largest number of IDN registrations are .com, .net, .top, .在线 (Chinese for .online) and .商标 (Chinese for .trademark)


Perception of IDNs

  • 43% of registries consider IDNs to be either ‘important’ or ‘very important’ to improve internet accessibility for local native language speakers (sample: 37 registries).

  • When asked to give a star rating of how well registrars support IDNs, registries gave an average rating of 3.2 out of 5 (sample: 29 registries).  

  • When asked perception of end-user awareness of IDNs, registries gave an average star rating of 2.5 out of 5 (sample: 36 registries).

  • 68% of registries consider the concept of Universal Acceptance to be the most important driver for IDN uptake.  They consider it to be more important than end-user awareness of IDNs.

Figure 1. Map of IDN support among national ccTLDs and IDN ccTLDs


While the availability of Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) has steadily increased across various top-level domains, both country code (ccTLDs) and generic (gTLDs), the growth and adoption of these domains have been remarkably sluggish. On the surface, IDN registrations appear well-supported, with at least 78 ASCII/Latin ccTLDs, 50 IDN ccTLDs, 423 ASCII/Latin gTLDs, and 95 IDN gTLDs offering IDN registrations. However, despite this apparent availability, the actual uptake of IDNs has been underwhelming. According to available data, there are an estimated 4.4 million second-level IDNs globally, representing a mere 1.2% of the entire domain name market. While this figure is likely an underestimation, it nonetheless highlights the limited penetration of IDNs in comparison to their ASCII/Latin counterparts.

Even more concerning is the lack of substantial growth in IDN registrations over the past year. While a handful of ccTLDs, such as .рф (Russian Federation), .vn (Vietnam), and .hk (Hong Kong), witnessed strong growth in IDN registrations, the majority of ccTLDs experienced minimal or no growth at all. In fact, a staggering 19 ccTLDs reported a contraction in their total IDN registrations during the same period. The median growth rate across a sample of 41 ccTLDs was a meager 0.6%, painting a bleak picture of the overall IDN market's stagnation. 

The reasons behind this lack of growth are multifaceted, but one factor that stands out is the relatively low end-user awareness of IDNs. According to ccTLD registries themselves, when asked to rate end-user awareness of IDNs, the average score was a mere 2.5 out of 5, indicating a significant knowledge gap among potential users. Another factor often associated the limited adoption are compatibility issues with many existing software and systems. These applications and systems were often designed with the assumption that domain names would only contain ASCII characters. The lack of Universal Acceptance means that even if a user successfully registers an IDN, they may encounter issues when attempting to use that domain name in various contexts, such as email addresses, web browsers, or other online services. These compatibility problems can manifest in various ways, including improper display, recognition, or processing of IDNs, leading to frustration and confusion for end-users.  Consequently, the perceived value and usefulness of IDNs are diminished, deterring potential adopters from embracing these domains. Users may opt for more conventional ASCII domain names to avoid potential compatibility issues, even if an IDN would better represent their language or cultural identity.

Notably, a significant majority (68%) of ccTLD registries consider the concept of Universal Acceptance to be the most important driver for IDN uptake, surpassing even end-user awareness. This recognition highlights the critical importance of addressing this technical challenge to enable the true potential of IDNs.

While the availability of IDNs has undoubtedly improved over time, thanks to the efforts of registries and the broader domain name industry, the widespread adoption and growth of these domains have yet to materialize. Unless concerted efforts are made to address the awareness and technical challenges related to Universal Acceptance, the potential of IDNs to truly democratize the internet and make it accessible to language communities worldwide may remain unfulfilled.


Data sourced from the annual IDN survey run by CENTR ( in cooperation with Net Knowledge (

Sources CENTR, APTLD, Zooknic. 

The research team relies on a variety of sources of data for IDNs: ccTLD data is collected directly from the ccTLD registries, both through the regional ccTLD organisations and via direct contact with the individual registries; gTLD data is collected via an external source ZookNIC. 

Working in close partnership with the regional IDN organisations – CENTR and APTLD – the research team circulates two forms -- IDN Implementation and IDN awareness every year in January to the ccTLD registries who are members of these regional organisations. The data collection period generally runs from January to March and allows ccTLD registries to add or update their data on the IDNs implementation characteristics, registration statistics (eg. total IDN domains) and a sentiment survey asking question on their views on IDN adoption and support in their communities. The research team follows up with individual registries on any queries or to fill gaps in the data.

While we aim to reach as many ccTLDs as possible, we cannot reach everyone.  For this reason, the statistics in the report should be interpretated as estimates only.  Given the limitation of input data, we also take care to present data fairly.  For example, statistics on growth in registrations use medians rather than combined absolute growth in order to give a better representation of an average ccTLD.  If you have any questions or suggestions about this report please contact

Report by Net Knowledge (

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